Skip to content

Cellular

Cellular

This module implements a generic Cellular interface. To function correctly it needs a cellular driver to be loaded, so that the module can use the driver to access the underlying hardware.

The link between the cellular module and the cellular driver is established without the programmer intervention by the driver itself.

This module defines the following constants:

  • BG95_M3 = 0; Quectel BG95-M3 Cellular module as modem type.
  • BG96 = 1; Quectel BG96 Cellular module as modem type.

Exceptions

exception CellularException

Generic cellular exception.

exception CellularModemInitError

The modem initialization failed.

exception CellularModemConfigurationError,

The modem not configured or configuration is not valid.

exception CellularInvalidStateError

The modem or GNSS is in an invalid state.

exception CellularBadAPN

The configured APN for PPP connection is not valid.

exception CellularCommandError

The command sent to the modem or GNSS failed.

exception CantRegisterInterfaceError

The cellular network interface cannot be registered.

exception ConnectionTimeoutError

The cellular network connection start timed out.

exception GNSSException

The exception related to GNSS submodule.

exception GNSSInitError

The GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) submodule initialization failed.

exception GNSSTimeoutError

The GNSS fix operation timed out.

Functions

function configure

configure(apn="zerynth-apn", apn_user="", apn_password="", dhcp=True, ip="", mask="", gateway="", dns="8.8.8.8", timeout=10000, modem_type=BG95_M3, name="cellular")
Configures the cellular interface with given arguments.

  • apn: is the APN for the network connection. It depends from the SIM card provider. The default is the APN for a Zerynth SIM.
  • apn_user: the username for the network connection authentication. Usually it is empty. Default value empty string.
  • apn_password: the password for the network connection authentication. Usually it is empty. Default value empty string.

If dhcp is True (the default) other following four IP related arguments are ignored. When dhcp is False, the four IP related arguments are:

  • ip: is the IP address.
  • mask: the net mask expressed as A.B.C.D dotted address.
  • gateway: the gateway to be used as default router.
  • dns: the Domain Name Server to be used for name resolution. Default is "8.8.8.8", the Google DNS.

  • timeout: Connection timeout in milliseconds. CellularException is raised if connection do not succeed during this time. Default value 10000 ms.

  • modem_type: the Cellular hardware module type. Default value BG95_M3.
  • name: the interface name to be used in a multi interface scenario. Default value "cellular".

function init

init()
The function powers the Cellular hardware module up, and initializes it. The GNSS subsystem is also initialized.

function deinit

deinit()
The function shuts the Cellular hardware module down, by also stopping all eventually opened network connections. The GNSS subsystem is also shut down.

function reset

reset()
The function resets the Cellular hardware module and the GNSS subsystem. The started network connections should have been closed before, otherwise they could fall in an inconsistent state.

function start

start()
The function starts the network interface by initiating the PPP connection process and setting all IP parameters (address, routing, DNS, etc.). The DHCP or static IP parameters are used depending upon the arguments passed to the configure() function. If the cellular module is also initialized, should it was not done yet.

function stop

stop()
The interface is stopped, all connections dropped, and all socket related to cellular interface closed.

function resolve

resolve(host, name="cellular")
Resolves the symbolic name for the given host to its IP address by using the configured DNS server and returning a string with the result. The name interface is used in a multi interface scenario. Default name value is "cellular".

function info

info(name="cellular")
Returns a tuple with the IP parameters associated with the named interface. The tuple is composed by the following elements:

  1. Bool: DHCP enabled (True) or disabled (False)
  2. String: IP address
  3. String: netmask
  4. String: gateway
  5. String: DNS
  6. String: MAC address

function interface

interface(name="cellular")
Returns an integer for the index associated with the named interface. Default name value is "cellular".

function atmode

atmode()
The function sets the modem in AT command mode.

function pppmode

pppmode()
The function sets the modem in PPP data mode.

function imei

imei()
The function returns the modem IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) as String.

function imsi

imsi()
The function returns the modem IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) as String.

function iccid

iccid()
The function returns the SIM card identifier as String.

function rssi

rssi()
The function returns the Cellular signal RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) value expressed in dBm in the range -113, -51. A valid value is always negative. A returned value of 99 means the signal strength is too low or undetectable.

function cellinfo

cellinfo()
The function returns a tuple with the Cellular cell information the modem is connected to. The tuple is composed by the following elements:

  1. String: The state of the modem connection. Can be: SEARCH, LIMSRV, NOCONN, CONNECT.
  2. String: Access technology. Can be: No Service, GSM, GPRS, EDGE, eMTC, NB-IoT.
  3. String: Operator code. 3 chars for MCC, 3 chars for MNC.
  4. String: Selected band
  5. Integer: Channel ID
  6. Integer: Local Area Code
  7. Integer: Cell ID
  8. Integer: Base station ID code
  9. Integer: Operator MCC
  10. Integer: Operator MNC
  11. String: Operator name

The values meaning for the element 0 of the tuple, the connection state, are:

  • SEARCH: the modem is not registered to any cell and is in searching mode
  • LIMSRV: the modem has registered to the cell but cannot exchange data yet.
  • NOCONN: the modem is in idle state. UE (User Equipment) has camped on a cell and registered on the network, but it is in the idle mode. This is the normal state when the modem is connected to the network.
  • CONNECT: the modem is in the frame transmitting/receiving state.

The values meaning for the element 1 of the tuple, the access technology, are:

  • No Service: the modem is not connected to the cell.
  • GSM: the modem is connected using GSM technology.
  • GPRS: the modem is connected using GPRS technology
  • EDGE: the modem is connected using EDGE technology
  • eMTC: the modem is connected using eMTC technology
  • NB-IoT: the modem is connected using NB-IoT technology

Classes

Class GNSS

This class is used to interface with GNSS hardware submodule of the cellular system. Note that the start() method has to be called in order to start the GNSS subsystem.

Class methods

method start

start()
This function initializes and sets the GNSS subsystem up. Note that to perform a GPS fix, either the fix() or location() methods have to be called.

method fix

fix(timeout=60)
The method runs the GPS fix and returns a tuple with the fixed data once the fix succeeds. The timeout argument is expressed in seconds and is the max amount of time to wait for the fix to complete. The default value is 60 seconds. When the timeout expires, the GNSSTimeoutError exception is raised.

The returned tuple is composed by the following elements:

  1. Float: The latitude expressed as (-)dd.ddddd degrees
  2. Float: The longitude expressed as (-)ddd.ddddd degrees
  3. Float: The horizontal dilution of precision
  4. Float: The altitude above/below mean sea level, expressed in meters.
  5. Integer: GNSS positioning mode. 2: 2D positioning, 3: 3D positioning.
  6. Float: Course Over Ground based on true north, expressed as ddd.mm (ddd: degrees, mm: minutes).
  7. Float: Speed over ground, expressed as Km/h.
  8. Float: Speed over ground, expressed as knots.
  9. Integer: Number of fixed satellites.

NOTE 1: The Cellular hardware module on the 4ZeroBox Mobile and on the EXP-CONNECT board can use one of the GNSS or GSM subsystem at a time. While the fix request is ongoing, the GSM connection gets suspended. Long timeouts in a condition of low GNSS antenna reception may cause the GSM connection to drop; the cellular software module will auto reconnect as soon as it is possible after fix completes.

NOTE 2: With the cellular hardware module on the 4ZeroBox Mobile and on the EXP-CONNECT board, the very first fix done after the GNSS submodule startup may requires longer time (at least 30 seconds, the better GNSS antenna reception, the shorter the fix). Additional fixes done afterwards require shorter timings (at least 3 seconds).

method location

location(timeout=60)
The method runs the GPS fix and returns a tuple with the location data once the fix succeeds. The timeout argument is expressed in seconds and is the max amount of time to wait for the fix to complete. The default value is 60 seconds. When the timeout expires, the GNSSTimeoutError exception is raised.

The returned tuple is composed by the following elements:

  1. Float: The latitude expressed as (-)dd.ddddd degrees
  2. Float: The longitude expressed as (-)ddd.ddddd degrees
  3. Float: The altitude above/below mean sea level, expressed in meters.

NOTE: see the fix() method notes for GNSS fix operation details.

Names

gnss

gnss
Pre-initialized Object for the GNSS class.

Examples

Using the cellular with 4ZeroBox Mobile:

from bsp import board
from networking import cellular

board.init()
board.summary()

try:
    print("configuring cellular...")
    # Use a Zerynth SIM
    cellular.configure()
    print("initializing modem...")
    cellular.init()

    print("imei: ", cellular.imei())
    print("imsi: ", cellular.imsi())
    print("SIM ID: ", cellular.iccid())

    print("Initializing the GPS...")
    cellular.gnss.start()

    print("connecting...")
    cellular.start()
    print("connected!")
    print("ppp info: :", cellular.info())

    print("cell info: ", cellular.cellinfo())

    ip=cellular.resolve("www.zerynth.com")
    print("www.zerynth.com resolved ip: ", ip)

    # sleep a little bit
    sleep(5000)

    print("Disconnecting...")
    cellular.stop()
    print("Disconnected!")

    print("Get GPS data...")
    print("GPS :", cellular.gnss.fix())

    cellular.deinit()

except CellularBadAPN:
        print("Bad APN")
        cellular.stop()
        cellular.deinit()
except CellularException:
        print("Generic Cellular Exception")
        cellular.stop()
        cellular.deinit()
except GNSSTimeoutError:
        print("GPS fix timed out")
        cellular.deinit()
except Exception as e:
        print("Exception: ", e)
        cellular.stop()
        cellular.deinit()
        raise e

while True:
    sleep(1000)

Using the cellular with ZM1-DB + EXP-CONNECT board

from bsp import board
from networking import cellular

# Import the module for EXP-CONNECT board.
from expansions import connect

board.init()
board.summary()

# Initialize the EXP-CONNECT board.
board.next_expansion(connect, (0,))

try:
    print("configuring cellular...")
    # Use the APN for a custom SIM
    cellular.configure(apn="my-provider-apn")
    print("initializing modem...")
    cellular.init()

    print("IMEI: ", cellular.imei())
    print("IMSI: ", cellular.imsi())
    print("SIM ID: ", cellular.iccid())

    print("Initializing the GNSS...")
    cellular.gnss.start()

    print("connecting...")
    cellular.start()
    print("connected!")
    print("ppp info: :", cellular.info())

    print("cell info: ", cellular.cellinfo())

    ip=cellular.resolve("www.zerynth.com")
    print("www.zerynth.com resolved ip: ", ip)

    # sleep a little bit
    sleep(5000)

    print("Disconnecting...")
    cellular.stop()
    print("Disconnected!")

    print("Get GPS data...")
    print("GPS :", cellular.gnss.fix())

    cellular.deinit()

except CellularBadAPN:
        print("Bad APN")
        cellular.stop()
        cellular.deinit()
except CellularException:
        print("Generic Cellular Exception")
        cellular.stop()
        cellular.deinit()
except GNSSTimeoutError:
        print("GPS fix timed out")
        cellular.deinit()
except Exception as e:
        print("Exception: ", e)
        cellular.stop()
        cellular.deinit()
        raise e

while True:
    sleep(1000)

Terms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation Description
APN Access Point Name
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS Domain Name Server
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
GNSS Global navigation satellite system
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPS Global Positioning System
GSM Global System for Mobile communications
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
MAC Media Access Control
MCC Mobile Country Code
MNC Mobile Network Code
NB-IoT Narrow Band for Internet of Things
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
UE User Equipment
eMTC enhanced Machine Type Communication